Ralph Ellison's development is a stronger and more experienced African-American writer

Ralph Waldo Ellison, with his first novel, gained worldwide recognition, Invisible Man on which literary reputation remained almost completely.

Soon it becomes the classic of American literature, now considered one of the most famous works of American art since the Second World War. The novel by an unnamed young black man is a bitter play on the American racist relationships with the author's experiences that tell in detail the unknown young black man struggling to live in hostile society. thus bringing his author an immediate greatness

Ralph Valdo Ellisson was born in 1914. On March 1, in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. His father, Lewis Alfred Ellison, was originally from South Carolina's Abbeville, a soldier who served in Cuba, the Philippines and China before getting married to Ida Milesap, the migration of Oklahoma and Oakleigh, where he became a construction worker and later a small entrepreneur.

Lewis and Ida moved to Oklahoma, as it was still considered the American border that they felt would have better opportunities than the southern self-fulfillment. Nevertheless, Oklahoma did not get rid of prejudice and racism. Ellisson's childhood was so severely restrictive, but not too repressive.

Many years later Ellison will know that his father hopes that he will be a poet, named American American author and poet Ralph Waldo Emerson.

Unfortunately, his father died when Ellisson was 3 years old and was not alive to see his son's wishes. However, Ellis's mother has now received little income as a home worker, a guardian, and sometimes a chef, her two sons, Ralph and Herbert.

Although Ralph Ellison's great-grandchildren were slaves, he claimed that they were strong black men who were against their own southern belts during the Reconstruction.

The segregation appearance here, Ellisson grew up without the extreme conditions facing South African Africans. Thus, he did not feel "a feeling of indifference" about his life's goals and creative aspirations when he remembered many years later. In Oklahoma, he was subjected to various elements of black and white cultural worlds. Ellison's mother, working as an intern, welcomed popular folk magazines and opera recordings that had left her employers to open a new world of culture.

In the public school system, Ellison studied the foundations of musical harmony and symphonic forms as well as songs, stories and dances of European folklore.

The main hero of the Oklahoma City Legendary Jazz Band, led by Bassist Walter Eagle, Ellison has accompanied many of his numerous members, including vocalist Jimmy Rushing, who later became the greatest singer in the Count Basie & s Group and eventually had such a strong impact on Ellison that years later he would include the "Memory of Jimmy" essay in the Criminal and Act Criticism book. Not surprisingly, music has become a permanent subject both in her personal life and in writing.

Ellison also attended the Douglas School, the legendary guitarist Charlie Kristian, who was amazed at the "sophisticated sounds and advancements" that he played on a self-made gadget.

Years ago Ellison became a musician. She studied the tie and piano when she lived in Oklahoma when there were some great jazz musicians involved in the music genre, as well as the classic composition she had learned at school.

In the South-Western region, Ellis's self-governing image or dream of his own will grow. Thus, seeking to break racial constraints, his extensive cultural experience inspired him to engage in several schools to proclaim "Renaissance Men", dedicated to the transfer of racial barriers through the study of art and thought. This concept seems to have been a fundamental force through its life. Her career in high school, college, in terms of music, literature, sculpture, theater, her profession and different interests of different ages, shows that the concept has helped her understand her full potential.

To fulfill this commitment, Ellison strives to become a composer of symphonic music. So in the high school, the trumpet lessons were received by the founder and conductor of the Oklahoma State Symphony Orchestra, Dr. Ludwig Hebstreit, whose assignment contributed to the perception of the complex structure of Ellison and high artistic forms.

Although music appeared as a key expression tool, Ellison also enjoyed reading reading. At the school, one of his teachers, Mrs. L. K. McFarland introduced him to the Harmony Renaissance writers, including Langston Hughes, Gate Cooken, Claude McKay and James Welton Johnson. At home, Ellis read fairy tales, western sections, detective stories, and Harvard classics. Beyond the streets and hairdressers outside the Oklahoma City, African Americans introduced him to the legends of the village's folk tales and black cowboys, caricatures, and black Indian heads

Ellisson was educated in 1973 after Douglas's high school, with excellence in music, but WEB Du Bois, a fellow at the University of Fisk, as Massachusetts's good people did not want to integrate into their school system. earned a state-sponsored scholarship to study music at the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama. So she would not attend the Oklahoma college or college. He, however, financially managed to visit immediately. Later he was forced to stand there on a freight train, because of no transportation.

The music section where Ellisson studied music at the Tuskee Institute was probably the most re-structured school in the school, conducted by conductor Charles L. Dawson, who was a perfect composer and choir manager. where Ellisson gained authority. The Tuskegee Choir was an unnecessary engagement as they were often invited to many prestigious locations around the world, including Radio City.

Ellisson is studying music from 1933 to 1936 in music, modern languages, physical education, and psychology. He also won a piano instructor, Harlem's approach, an Italian pianist and composer, Ferruccio Bousson's prize and a friend of Russian composer Sergei Prokofiev, who had a great influence in the practice of magic during the three-hour day.

Ellisson discovered a southern limit, "because of the signs and symbols that separated the dividing lines." He also believes that most of his teaching in Tuskegee was far from "using imagination, away from aggression and courage … There were things you did not do because the world did not come out to accommodate it."

Ellison was also amazed at all the political Tuskegee by white, especially after Robert E. S., a professor of sociology at the University of Chicago. He noticed that it was done with Dr. Park, which many considered the power behind Teke Washington that Tuskegee gained national authority.

However, this same sociologist, together with Ernest Burginges, wrote Sociology (1924), often used in Tuskegee, where he was inconsistent with the "black man" intellect, confirming that "he is not an intellectual or an idealist. He is basically a painter, a loving life for himself.

After all, Ellison discovered Tuskegee as a progressive institution where he met with English department head Morteza Spaghe, who later donated his first essay, shadow and act (1964). True, his Renaissance man is ideal, he has studied sculpture led by Eva Hamblin, who was subsequently responsible for his meeting and studying New York's black sculptor Auguste Savage.

Though Ellison did not take any serious formal attempt to study literature in Tuskegee until he learned music mainly in the classroom, he added time to the modern classics reading in the library of the time. There he began studying literature by studying TS Eliot's Waste Land (1922) – a piece of poetry that later explained, using "endless sounds of sounds" that resembled the improvisational approach to "jazz experimentation." ":

Ellison believes that the poem is an interesting person because he explains that he was able to abandon his musical experience. "Sometimes his rhythms were closer to jazz than the Navegards." He specifically emphasized it as the main awakening moment for him. To make it attractive to the poet's musical, he actually captured him. When he acknowledges, "Sometimes in unintelligible reading of my Eliot and Pound, I know the relationship between modern poetry and jazz music. True, such reading and curiosity have prepared me not only to meet. [Richard] Wright, but look for him.

Links: Country of Waste: , Ellisson has learned other great contemporary writers. Soon he was reading the works by Gertrude Stein, Ezra Pound, Sherwood Anderson and Ernest Hemingway. His statements that interest him in writing. Through Harrison, Ellison met with professor of the University of Howard, a philosopher and scientist Alain Lokie, who visited Tuskeghe in the mid-1930s.

After the third year, Ellisson moved to New York to look for a summer job to earn enough money to get the job back to complete her job. The economic impact of the great depression was limited to the opportunity to look for a job as a stunt. It's impossible to raise money to return to school, Ellisson decided to stay in New York City. He supported himself as a freelance photographer, photographer.

He originally intended to study the sculpture during his stay in the city. He was not able to open with Harmal the artist Owa Sawhaz, who had studied with Richmond Barthe for one year. She got acquainted with artist Romer Berden. The interest in sculpture became furious and returned to the musical composition.

From his arrival in New York, he met Alain Lokie, who introduced him to Louisstroe Hughes, who accompanied her. Later, Hughes asked Ellison to write two books – Andre Malkhui's "The Fate of the Man and the Days of Hurt" after reading them. But after reading these, Ellisson found the books important sources of inspiration that are closer to the world of literature.

The most important contact Ellision will be with American American writer Richard Urquist, with whom he has created a complex relationship for many years. It was Arna Bonstemps and Langston Hughes, who helped him meet White. which was timely editor New Challenge: . Ellison met him in the office Daily worker In 1937, on the 135th Street of Harlem. After discussing literature, Wright asked Ellison to write the book of Walter Turpin. These low bases for the first edition of a short periodical New Challenge: . "He who has never tried to write something," said Ellison, "this was the earliest idea."

Wright encouraged him to write his career in the film's work, as a result of which was the story of Hui's Bull, the 1937 Winter Issue. New Challenge: . Immediately after that, he became a constant developer, left-wing cultural periodical New Arms: and Fifth Quarter: . His written career was so far away with Richard Witt, who was the first who encouraged him to write.

In the summer Ellison came to New York, Great Depression was recorded in American and economic growth. The Harlem Renaissance, largely dependent on white charity for its existence, came out of the 1929 crash because many of its sponsors were unable to continue their financial support. Fortunately, the New York Federative Writers & # 39; The program was created by WPA and Ellisson, Wright, and other writers were able to continue their careers by joining them. During this time he worked on collecting and recording the folk material in the Black community, which became an inseparable part of his writing Invisible Man

From 1938 to 1942 Ellisson worked for the New York Federal Writers & Program. contributed to the new media, Antioch Review and other magazines, stories, reviews and reviews. and in 1942 became the editor of Negro Quarterly. 1941 Published for the new Mesopotamian people. After deciding to be the editor for the "Negro Quarter," he wrote two stories in 1944, "Flying Home" and "King of Bingo Game", engaged in a young black man, and absurdly controlling his fate in 1937-1944, Ellisson had accumulated more more than twenty books, as well as short stories and articles published in new challenges and new mass media magazines. They made up his earliest published writings.

During this time, he captured his literary themes on African American folklore and ethnic identity. His first creative work, as a writer, had an impact on Wright's tough vision. The short stories of "Sikon Gonna Learning" (1939) and "The Birthmark" (1940) are examples of its cruel subjects and violence. But he soon broke down the literary nature of the Wright and Hemingway School. Instead of focusing on environmental forces, he believed in the inner strength of the individual to overcome the obstacles and overwhelming elements of his environment.

Details of his life history, such as Shadow and Act (1964), The collection of political, social, and critical reviews, hints and interviews increases the notion of "Invisible Man" who deals with his reputed words, "Literature and folklore , Nazi music, especially jazz and blues, as well as a complex relationship between the Nave American subspecies and the North American culture. "

There, Ellison answers the investigator Irving Hoon's black writer's responsibility, competing with the character of Stanley Edgar Hyman's black folklore and criticizing the interpretation of Leon Jones.

Ralph Ellison won the National Book Award for the Invisible Man (1952), his first novel, for the story of the alienated and isolated black man, residing in a rustically reputed urban America. The invisible man's incomparable success has been made all over the world and suddenly considered the most important American writers. Looking forward to the role of her raceman, Ellison has always assured her in her book book that he pursues more and more art than racial justice.

Even though Ellison's early writings reflect Richard Wright's creative imagination, however, his writings showed "wealth and complexity" of his vision. Ellison's style was unique because he combines various elements such as realism, surrealism, folklore and an invisible human myth, the story of an unknown narrator who learns himself.

Shadow and Act have been described as self-illustrative, but only discloses the young Ellison, who is Ellison, who, in large measure, continues to be Wright & and it feels necessary to protect himself. Visiting Area The second series of Ellison, hints, speeches and interviews reveals the elusive Ellison, a literary statesman, a race of good will, a philosopher who does not believe not as much as it does in a society of cultural pluralism. It charges such figures as Henry Colewell, Richard Wright, and Duke Ellington, considering the issue of American democracy and identity.

The writer who stands in a literary tradition is based on how well he perceives that tradition and how he or she invests or changes them. Ellison claims he follows the greatest writers in the world and claims that his literary ancestors are such giants as TS Eliot, Henry James, Ernest Hemingway, Mark Tvein, Herman Melville, Fyodor Dostoevsky and William Folkler.

Though Ellison does not consider Richard Wright as a literary ancestor, he has adopted the vision of Wright's natural determinism. Էլլիսոնը գտել է, որ Ռայթի տեսլականը չափազանց նեղ է, Ամերիկայում Սեւ փորձը ներկայացնելու համար: Նա հավատում էր, որ Ռայթը շատ դեպքերում գրում է միայն մեծ համայնքում կարծրատիպային պատկերների մեջ, որ սեւ գրողը պետք է փորձի թուլացնել:

Ստվերում եւ Ակտում, Էլլիսոնը հավաստիացրեց, որ սեւ հեղինակների կողմից գրված շատ գրքեր ուղղված են սպիտակ հանդիսատեսին, վտանգը, որ սեւ գրողները այնուհետեւ հակված են սահմանափակել դրանք իրենց լսարանի եւ ենթադրությունների մասին, թե Black people- ը նման էր կամ պետք է լինի նման: Սեւ գրողը, ի վերջո, կրճատվել է իր ռասայի մարդկության դեմ բողոքող, որը Էլլիսոնը համարում է, թե արդյոք Blacks- ը լիովին մարդկային է, անբարեխիղճություն այն կեղծ հարցի կապակցությամբ, որ Blacks- ը կարող էր իրեն թույլ տալ: Հավատալ, որ բնականիստական ​​/ դետեկտիվ ռեժիմը չկարողացավ սահմանել Սեւ փորձը, Էլլիսոնը ստեղծել է մի ոճ, որը զորացնում է ուժը, քաջությունը, տոկունությունը եւ խոստումը, ինչպես նաեւ Ամերիկայում Սեւ փորձի յուրահատկությունը:

Գրական հեղինակների ավանդական գրական ճանապարհից զերծ մնալու մեջ Էլլիսոնը դարձավ ազատող, սեւ գրականություն ազատելով ամերիկյան գրական գաղութատիրությունից եւ բերեց ազգային եւ միջազգային անկախություն: Ellison- ի ազատագրական ոգին ակնհայտ է այնպիսի գրքերում, ինչպիսիք են McPherson, Ernest J. Gaines, Leon Forrest եւ Clarence Major- ը եւ Իսմայիլ Ռեդի սյուրռեալիզմը, Թոնի Մորիսոնի ժողովրդական ավանդույթը, Գլորիա Նեյլորի ցուցադրած պատմական ավանդույթը, եւ Toni Cade Bambara- ի հոգեւորությունը, որը մշակել է այլընտրանքային ձեւափոխման ձեւեր կամ, ինչպես Էլլիսոնն է ասում, իրականացրեց նոր գրական կարողություններ: Նրանք գրում են ոչ միայն Ամերիկայում Սեւ փորձի մասին, այլեւ ամերիկյան փորձի մասին: Մեծ գրողների ավանդույթների մեջ գրելիս Էլլիսոնը բղավեց գրական արահետ, երիտասարդ գրողների համար: Նրա նորարարական ոճը, հավանաբար, առաջին քայլն էր, օգնելու Սեւ գրողներին կոտրել աֆրիկյան ամերիկյան տառերի սոցիոլոգիական ավանդույթի գրական կոնվենցիաները: Էլլիսոնը նաեւ «հաշվետու ազդեցություն» ունի հիմնական լրագրողների վրա:

Ռալֆ Էլլիսոնը, ավելի շատ, քան ցանկացած սեւ գրող, փոփոխություն է կատարել աֆրիկյան ամերիկացի (եւ ամերիկյան) գրական կանոնի կողմից, հրաժարվելով ընդունել սեւ բանաձեւը նկարագրելու համար նախատեսված բանաձեւերը: Այնուհետեւ իր տեսիլքին կատաղի իրականություն բերեց, որ ոչ սեւերը, ոչ կովկասցիները պատրաստ են ընդունել: Բայց նրա ճշմարտությունն այնպիսին էր, որ այդպես էր, ուստի զգացվում էր, որ ոչ մի ռասան չի կարող ժխտել այն: Էլլիսոնը հիշելու է գրականության մեջ եւ կյանքում, երբ հասարակությունը տեսանելի դարձնելու համար, որտեղ նրանք անտեսանելի էին:

Իր վաղ պատմությունների մեջ, ինչպիսիք են «Բինգո խաղի թագավորը», Էլլիսոնը օգտագործում էր հեգնանքի, գոթիսիզմի եւ հեգնական հումորի տեխնիկան, նկարագրելու սեւ եւ սպիտակ աշխարհների մակերեսի ետեւում թաքնված իրականությունը:

Չկարողանալով միանալ ԱՄՆ ռազմածովային ուժերին, Էլլիսոնը Երկրորդ համաշխարհային պատերազմի ժամանակ վաճառվել է Merchant Marine- ում, ծառայելով որպես խոհարար եւ ծովագնացություն նավատորմային զորակոչով, որը զորքեր է տրամադրել Ճակատամարտի ճակատամարտում: Այստեղ ծառայելով, նա պատմում է կարճ պատմվածքներ: Միեւնույն ժամանակ, Ռոզենվալդ հիմնադրամի կողմից տրամադրվել է 1500 ԱՄՆ դոլարի դրամաշնորհ, նա գրեց «Տարօրինակ երկրում» պատմությունը: Նախադրվել է նացիստական ​​բանտարկյալների ճամբարում, հեքիաթը նկարագրում է սեւ մարտիկի օդաչուի պայքարը որպես իր բարձրաստիճան դաշնակիցների բանտերում գտնվող ամենաբարձրաստիճան սպա:

Նյու Յորք վերադառնալուց հետո, իր Rosenwald ընկերակցության հետ, Էլլիսոնը ընդունում էր Վիտսֆիլդ քաղաքի (Vermont) ընկերուհու ֆերմա անցկացնելու հրավերը, որտեղ նա հորինել է իր վեպի գաղափարը Անտեսանելի մարդ . Էլլիսոնը հիշեց իր գրքում Գնալ դեպի տարածք ինչպես, մի ​​կեսօրին իր գտնվելու ընթացքում, նա «գրել էր մի բառ, երբ նստած էր լեռան վրա գտնվող հին շտեմարանում նստած …» «Ես անտեսանելի մարդ եմ»: թե ինչ է դա նշանակում, թե որտեղից գաղափար է առաջացել, բայց երբ սկսեցի լքել այն, ես մտածեցի. «Գուցե գուցե ես փորձեմ հայտնաբերել, թե ինչ է պատահում այդ հայտարարության ետեւում»: Խորհուրդը, Էլլիսոնը կառուցել է արտահայտության իմաստը եւ դրա փոխհարաբերությունը օտարման եւ ինքնորոշման թեմայով: ,.

Հետպատերազմյան ամերիկյան գեղարվեստական ​​մի քանի վեպեր, որոնք նշվել են, գրվել եւ վերլուծվել են որպես Էլլիսոնի Անտեսանելի մարդ . Շատ քննադատներ պնդում են, որ այս հեղինակը խորապես ներգրավված է ամերիկյան հասարակության քաոսային եւ բարդ բնույթի մեջ, նրան ժամանակակից գրականության մեջ տեւական գործիչ է դարձնում: Արմատավորվելով աֆրիկյան եւ եվրոպական մշակույթների մեծ երաժշտական ​​եւ գրական ավանդույթներում, Էլլիսոնի արձակը ընդմիջում է Հարմոնի Վերածննդի նախկին ոճերի եւ Ռիչարդ Ռայթի գրական բնության մասին: Նրա գրքերը լցված են սյուրռեալիստական, երազային նման տեսարաններով, որոնք ապահովում են մարդկային փորձի մութ անցքերը:

1964-ին Էլլիսոնը հրապարակեց Ստվերային եւ ակտ , 20 շարադրությունների ժողովածու, 2 հարցազրույց եւ ելույթ `նվիրված աֆրիկյան ամերիկյան մշակույթի, գրականության եւ երաժշտության քննադատությանը: Գրված է հիմնականում ամսագրերում հրատարակելու համար, գրքի հոդվածները ծածկում են ուշ քառասունյոթից մինչեւ վաղ 60-ական թվականները:

«Արվեստը կյանքի տոն է», – հայտարարել է Էլլիսոնը Ստվեր եւ ակտ: դա, ինչպես նա բացատրում է, «միասնության մեջ բազմազանության» արժեքը հասկանալու միջոց է, որը թույլ է տալիս մեզ ուսումնասիրել մարդկության ամբողջական տիրույթը:

Հաջորդ տարին, 1965 թ., Հրապարակվեց 200 նշանավոր գրական գործիչների հեղինակներ, խմբագիրներ եւ քննադատություններ, Նյու Յորքի Հերալդ Տրիբունայի կողմից իրականացվող քննության արդյունքում, որը համարվում էր անտեսանելի մարդը որպես Երկրորդ համաշխարհային պատերազմից հետո ամենակարեւոր վեպը: Դա «վերջին քսան տարիների ընթացքում տպագրված ամենահաջողակ միակ աշխատանքն էր»:

Նա նպաստեց Կենդանի վեպը (Granville Hicks, հրատարակություն, 1957), Զայրացած Սեւ (Ջոն Ա. Ուիլյամս, հրատարակություն, 1963) եւ այլն Շուտով մի առավոտյան (Herbert Hill, ed., 1963) եւ բազմաթիվ գրական ամսագրերում: 1964 թվականին Տուսկեեյան ինստիտուտը նրան շնորհեց պատվավոր դոկտորի աստիճան:

Վեպի արվեստի պրակտիկայի վերաբերյալ կատարելագործված, Ellison- ը հայտարարել է, որ իր Ազգային գրքի մրցանակը ստանալու է անտեսանելի մարդու համար, որ զգում էր, որ նա «մեծ վեպի փորձ է արել» եւ հետեւողականորեն մրցանակ, նա դժգոհ էր գիրք:

Էլիզիսոնի գրականության հանդեպ ունեցած վճռականությունը եւ գրավչությունը գրեթե գրել է թե 'սեւ փորձի, թե ջազ երաժշտության հանդեպ նրա սերը գրելու մասին գրքերը, այն պահպանել է մտավոր եւ ակադեմիական շրջանակների առաջատարը: Այսպիսով, Էլլիսոնը շարունակում է մեծ պարգեւներ ստանալ իր աշխատանքի համար:

1969 թ. Նա ստացավ Ազատության մեդալ, Ամերիկայի բարձրագույն քաղաքացիական պատիվը նրան շնորհել է Նախագահ Լինդոն Բ. Ջոնսոնի կողմից: Հաջորդ տարում նա պարգեւատրվել է Ֆրանսիայի կողմից կազմակերպված «Chevalier de l 'Ordre des Arts et Lettres» – ում եւ դարձել Նյու Յորքի համալսարանի ֆակուլտետի մշտական ​​անդամ `որպես Ալբերտ Շվեյցարի 1970-1980թթ. 1975 թ. Նա ընտրվել է Արվեստի եւ գրերի ամերիկյան ակադեմիայի եւ նրա հայրենի Օկլահոմա քաղաքի պատվին նրան շնորհել է Ռալֆ Վալդո Էլլիսոնի գրադարանի նվիրումը: Շարունակելով ուսուցանել, Էլլիսոնը հրատարակել է հիմնականում ռեֆերատների եւ 1984-ին ստացել է Նյու-Յորք քաղաքի Langston Hughes Medallion քոլեջը: Հաջորդ տարի տեսնում էր Տարածք դեպի մեկնելու գրքույկը, տասնյոթի էսսեների հավաքածու, որը ներառում էր հարավային վիպասան Վիլյամ Ֆոլկների եւ նրա ընկեր Ռիչարդ Ռայթի մասին, ինչպես նաեւ Դյուկ Էլլինգթոնի երաժշտությունը եւ աֆրիկացի ամերիկացիների ներդրումները ԱՄՆ-ի համար: ի ազգային ինքնությունը: Նրա երկրորդ հավաքածուները եւ դասընթացները `« Տարածք դեպի գոտի », լույս է տեսել 1986 թվականին:

Ellison- ը մահացավ գլխուղեղի քաղցկեղից 1994 թ. Ապրիլի 16-ին Նյու Յորքում, թողնելով իր երկրորդ վեպը, որը նա սկսեց շուրջ 1958 ավարտված եւ անավարտ հոդվածներում: Մասաչուսեթս նահանգի Պլաինսֆիլդի իր ամառանոցում կրակ է արձակվել, ձեռագրերից շատերը ավերել, ստիպելով նրան վերակառուցել այն, ինչ նա արել էր:

Ռալֆ Էլլիսոնը թաղվեց Նյու Յորքի Վաշինգտոն բեկի հարեւանությամբ: Նրա կինը, որը վերապրած էր, ապրել է մինչեւ 2005 թ. Նոյեմբերի 19-ը: Նրա մահից հետո իր տանը ավելի շատ ձեռագրերը զրկվեցին, ինչի արդյունքում 1996 թ. Թռիչքի տունը եւ այլ պատմություններ հրապարակվեցին: Սակայն դեռեւս գովասանքի եւ քննադատական ​​ուշադրության շնորհիվ իր հրատարակած գործով, քիչ կասկած կա, որ նրա ունիվերսալ ուղերձը կավարտվի քսաներորդ դարի վերջից հետո:

Seismic proportions scare tactics

Some critics of hydraulic fractures are really all kinds of criticisms of hydrocarbons.

Although their counteraction to fracking shows in many places and in different ways, this group is not great, it is interested in the different interests and disadvantages of the discussions. Instead, they continue to look for the most effective methods to convince others that fracking or oil and gas in general should be abandoned.

In this context, it is easy to see the Fragment in Oklahoma, which causes a more frequent earthquake as a series of long-lasting arguments that the opponent has to do with varying degrees of accuracy, accusing the process of changing the phenomenon. from climate change to superficial pollution.

First, revelation. My company owns several oil and gas partners for our customers. These partners have been involved in drilling technology for many years. Though one can reasonably conclude that it gives me some degree of outlook on the subject, it also gives an opportunity to the technological and geological problems that play in this debate.

True, Oklahoma has seen seismic activity. The small town of Cushing, the center of North America's largest commercial oil storage facility, lasted several miles during a few small earthquakes, the largest of which is the Richter Scale 4.5. Bloomberg reports that the growth of Oklahoma and seismic activity corresponds to the increase in oil extraction and fracking. (1)

The evidence for this is quite clear that some processes are associated with deep-seated wastewater treatment, which, in some other cases, abandoned wells can be driven by machines and can sometimes be measured by perceptible people. In extreme cases, some of this movement may even drown in the house or crumble a plate.

But this is a long way from broken dishes for the threat to national security, which Bloomberg described the situation. (1)

Kushing tank farmers and pipelines sit in the earliest granddaughter area of ​​the nation. They also have an obvious terrorist purpose in the 9/11 era. After the September 11 attacks, tanks paid special attention to law enforcement agencies. they are about 6 times more oil these days than in 2001. They are an important resource, and they must be absolutely protected.

However, it is ridiculous that at the level of scientists, seismic activity can cause fracking or other related drilling activities, which threatens the people and for physical or economic security.

In the context of the controversy, consider the 4.5 magnitude earthquake, which is the largest in Cushing. It is classified as a "light" earthquake. Though people can and have noticed the shift in that level, these earthquakes usually cause only minor damage. About 30,000 countries are estimated to be between 2.5 and 5.4 in the Richter scale throughout the year. 2) We do not hear about these events on average over 80 per day because they are very small and common.

There are no injuries or injuries of 4.5 magnitude near Cushing. Because of the low levels of low levels of seismic activity, the injuries were few. Courts allowed at least one woman to try and demand a court hearing that the oil company is responsible for earthquake-related injuries. The 2011 earthquake, which he was wound up, reached a height of 5.0m above Cushing's point of departure, but still between "light" and "moderate".

As for the larger events. According to a study published in October, a magnitude 5.6 magnitude earthquake could be benefited from the Cushing storage facility. If such an event took place, "it could cause moderate damage to Cushing tanks depending on the height, diameter and percentage of the tank." These tanks are full of these days. The magnitude 5.6 magnitude earthquake in the immediate vicinity of the facility may, of course, cause some major problems, although the authors of the study have no mention of the likelihood of such an event.

We should not bury our heads in oil sands and ignore this question. Fracking, as with any petrol development, must be made responsible. This includes removal of wastewater from the rocks, which probably leads to considerable damage. The study notes, for example, after a 4.0-magnitude earthquake, Oklahoma's inspectors discovered that waste is injected below the targeted rock layer. The mysterious liquid was surrendered to more sinners by raising the potential of the earthquake. You should pay attention to the reduction of such scenarios. And, if necessary, we must necessarily prove that Cushing and other sensitive areas are tanks, pipelines and other infrastructures in order to sustain the growing potential of the ground.

But let me say that in Franklin, the fringe raises some of the risk of major earthquakes there, ridiculous. Frequency is not the same as the gravity, and the argument that the problem arises from the national security level, in fact, is that tornadoes should also be viewed in that way.

Argument does not cover the discussion on coverage, and does not lead to rational choice. But when it is done by some parties it does not mean that. It is a narrow tactic of seismic proportions.


1) Bloomberg, "Earthquake Earthquakes are a Threat to National Security"

2) UPSeis, "Earthquake Magnitude / Earthquake Amount"

Cheap Vacation Spots guide 6 Available places for a fun escape

That's not exactly what you need to spend a ton to get enough rest. A brutal alternative to every popular touristic destination. Even some of the more popular places become more accessible these days. No matter what kind of tour you are interested in, you can count on there as some of the cheapest vacations you have to meet your needs. Here are some suggestions that start with you.


Thailand is always a popular country for backpackers. It has a rich culture, beautiful islands, beaches, cuisine and tons of adventures. All this is usually available at affordable prices. There are more in Thailand than just in Bangkok. Get acquainted with Cooper Tao, Koh Samet, Kao Laki, Hua Hin District and Piet City.


This is a cheaper alternative to South America's most common countries, such as Brazil and Argentina. There are many gorgeous beaches that have chosen and check out plenty of wild animals. Simply slide into American Airlines, Air Europa or British Airways in Montevideo.

Isla Mujeres

If you are looking for cheap vacations in Mexico, here's your head. It's an exceptional alternative to Cancun. As long as the dollar remains strong in Mexico, Isla Muerzes will be accessible to such US travelers. You can rent a rental golf basket around the island. Since there are no tourist traps, everything is available at a low cost.

Camino de Santiago

Looking for a Cheap European Vacation? Camino de Santiago is your best choice right now. See many historical places on the way to Spain. Every year thousands of people go from all over the country to "pilgrimage" to the summer. Along the route, there are many affordable restaurants and budget resorts.

Oklahoma City

This city is a cheap flight to the United States, which offers a lot of fun. You can do everything to wander through Bricktown (free) through the National Cowboy and the Museum of Western Heritage. There is no shortage of restaurants, shops, bars and hotels.

Daytona, FL

If you want to have a beach vacation, Daytona is one of the sexiest beaches in the world. It is also connected to NASCAR, so you can check the high speed path if it is open. There are actually 20 miles or many public layers to explore. Interested in history? Visit the Art and Science Museum.

These are just some of the cheapest places to visit right now. Each of these destinations has something of a certain age.

When planning any type of refugee or trip, make sure you use online coupons to ensure the best deal you can. You can also use the intuitive search function knowing that around the world is the cheapest vacation spot.

Remembering Lane Frost?

In the summer, a 89-year-old American gave me an interview in the Rodeo, Redding, California cowboy and Red Rock Cup. It will be one of the last interviews. he died on July 30 in Wayneing, Chenen at his next rodeo. His name was Lane Frost.

Later, a film was shot about his life and the rodeo career called "8 seconds." There, Luke Perry was playing with a young athlete and appeared by Red Rock.

Cheyenne crash news are spreading rapidly. I'm in Rock Sprint, Wyoming, Rodeo, on the "circle 8" which begins after all participants in all radio stations begin their speeches. Someone says, "Lane sleeps at Cheyenne."

When we finished the opening process, we heard that Lane was dead. Lane Frost was a friend of many in the rodeo world. In fact, his memorial plaque took place at the Oklahoma City Church, which spent 1200 and showed around 3500 to say goodbye. His parents chose their ultimate resting place in the UK. Olivet Cemetery in Olivier, Oklahoma, Hugo, where his friend, Frock Brown, laid out earlier.

The film "8 seconds" tried to make justice for her life, but she did not address the friendship between Lane and Täf. Here I was with Taf soon after Lane's death, in the city of Fort Myerson in Iowa. He showed that he was ready to ride and go for a press tour. Tuf and I have benefited from some kind of charity. We both had to dance with someone who offered us.

In Cheney's fateful day, after a very heavy rain, Lane placed a grandson named Takin & Business Care & # 39; Cowboys had their name. They label the animal, "The Broken Bone." Lane has come out and is good, scoring 85 points and approaching a $ 10,000 prize money. After the trip, Lane fell. Behold, when the ox turns and stops it. His cavity broke the ribs, cut the blood vessels and dug into the heart.

He died in the arena, although doctors tried unsuccessfully to rehabilitate him for hours in the hospital. Tuff eventually allowed to see his new discouraged friend, then in the waiting room "seemed forever." Three days later, he served as one of his robbers.

At Cheyenne Arena today there is a young Bulgarian statue, where she lost her life what she liked to do. The cemetery, where he is buried, has permanent visitors. Many rodeo worlds have fallen out of this young man's death.

Dozens, maybe hundreds, remembered to call their sons after this invading hero. The site has many cowkids names called "Lane Frost", 50 years of memorabilia, 25 of which have passed but never forgotten.

Lane Clyde Frost was a member of an American professional bouquet and PRCA-Pro Rodeo Cowboys Association.

OK City Zoo Amphitheater

The OK City Zoo amphitheatre lives in music and is part of the Oklahoma City Zoo, the youngest in the southwest. The zoo is very excited for children and adults. One of the main sights of the city of Oklahoma is to offer: the zoo features a number of exotic species and over 100 beautiful green areas. The Zoo features special exhibits that are specifically featured in major destinations such as Big Escape, Cat Forest, Island Life, Butterfly Garden, and Aquatics, each of which is dedicated to a particular category of animals. Besides all these sights, OKC Zoo Amphitheatre inspires the audience with its live music shows.

The musicians in the Amphitheater include Paul Rogers, Willie Nelson, Velvet Revolver, Beach Boys, Carole King and Snoop Dogg. Selling concerts are a common occurrence here. One of the reasons for the popularity of the OKC Zoo Amphitheater is the great open-air atmosphere. Landscape chairs and blankets are allowed, allowing audiences to show their comfort and convenience. The concession is provided for food and drink.

The OKC Zoo Amphitheatre offers more than a basic open-air experience. Its gold package and the Platinum package are available at $ 1,000 and $ 1,500 respectively, offering VIP experience. The Golden Pack brings the VIP panel, which serves plasma screens, a food serving bar, a full range of alcoholic drinks and more. The package includes General Access Tickets and Reserved Locations. The Platinum Package brings all of these features and laminated VIP Pass, plus the possibility of making it there with your favorite orchestras.

It's a great experience that the OK City Zoo Amphitheater offers live music with great bands and a fantastic atmosphere. Travel services offer OKC Hotels with amphitheater concerts, including a series of 2009 summer concerts.

Greater Oklahoma City Walleye fishing frenzy

Since walleye is inclined to deep lakes in North America, Rocky bottoms, Oklahoma's walleye fishing is not something that is generally discussed or even thought. However, with some disruptions and warmer waters, walleye has been a great prize for those who love taste of white, fragile fish or rice with barbecue. Okolaho actually had the place where walleye managed to flourish a little bit, and despite the warmth of the climate and the lack of deep lakes in the state.

Since this predatory fish will get nothing, it can get its sharp, curved teeth, there is no shortage of food supplies in Oklahoma's lakes and rivers, where the walks live. Many of these lakes have heavy, rocky and sandy bases that prefer walleye and some lakes are even deep enough to meet the walleye's dark, foggy waters. Walleye is called because they have a special film behind their retinas that both reflect and soak in the sun, allowing them to see in the water where most of the fish can not. As they instinctively learned to use it with their advantages, walleye feels more confident and comfortable in such conditions, knowing that they can see better than their victim.

Oklahoma's walleye fishing can be effective, but here you can find many great samples on the lakes and rivers. Walleye has strange growth trends that have a great impact on the ambient temperature where it benefits. Most north northern lakes, walleye will grow slowly, have a long life and reach a large size, sometimes up to 25 inches. Nevertheless, the form of growth in the warmer waters significantly changes. In warmer climatic conditions, like those found in Oklahoma, walleye will grow faster. However, they do not get much, and their life span is reduced.

When you participate in Oklahoma's walleye fishing, there are some tips that you have to consider. First of all, in this area of ​​the country, walleye will sprout in spring, during which time they will move to the lake's feeding streams, where they usually stay. You will find them mainly in clean, surface areas with deeper water. For best results, as walleye does not like the heat or the light, you will find the best after the sunset after midnight. Use live cuffs or crayons, small spinnerets and plastic worms that depend on your walleye.

College Football – The 9th Week – Texas Handicapped Overclocked States of Oklahoma and the State of Penn County

The top 10 goals of the AP's top scorers in the 9th week of college football, Top 25 Poll reports that all opponents are not easily moving.

Texas 1 hosted the 7th Oklahoma Oklahoma City tournament and won 28-24th Cowboys with 46 points in almost semi-final 7 games. Oklahoma City has scored 56, 57, 55 and 56 points out of 7 of its 7 victories. The cowboys play hard, but eventually Longhorns refused to lose.

# 2 Alabama traveled to indestructible Tennessee and Chronze Teide, beaten by volunteers 29-9. Tennessee can be the top 3-5 team in the country. Few people realize that Vols is the 14th in the national team with defensive protection, the 17th on the defensive and the 17th on the defensive side.

The state of Pins # 3 has gone to the state of Ohio state No. 10 and has returned to one of the country's top defenders in 13-6 nails. The Nittany Lions ahead of the first six games in Valsta, Wisconsin, on the way home and Michigan home. Many thought their schedule was weaker than Buick. No, no. JoPa's team is out of the state of Ohio 9-0.

It is less known that while Bouteys were among the top five teams in the top 25, Nittany Lions also ranked 25th. Moreover, Penn State is the best 25th in another defense category and two more offensive rules. Ohio will not participate in BCS national championship this year.

Oklahoma City No. 4 went on to become the indestructible state of Kansas and won the first half, 55-28. Kansas won the second half – 7-3. The final was 58-35. It is enough to say that the defense has not been shown.

Florida, hosted No. 5 in Kentucky, and handed Wildcats at school at age 63-5, so that some intellectuals would never end.

The State of California No. 6 was able to pass anonymous, 2-5 to Arizona's team, 17 to 10, with no impressive victory. No. 8 Texas Tech was impressive on the road, the 19th twenty-five hit a new 63-21 victory. Tech has gone from 56 to 14 in three quarters. Georgia # 9 visited Luiziana State No. 11 and won 52-38.

Many of the other 25 best winners did not cause much activity. 13-year-old Boye Province is a 33-year-old boy from San José, Texas 15, Texas Christian Christian 54-7 in Wyoming, Missouri, Missouri 58-0, 18th Brigham Young UNLV 42-35, No. 20 East Michigan 38- 16, No. 22 Tulsa Central Florida, 49-19, No. 24 Florida State, 30-20 in Virginia Technology and 25 in Purdue, Minnesota.

Other 25 teams that lost the unmatched teams were included in No. 14 in South Florida, 24-20 in Louisville, 17 from Pittsburgh to Ruthgers 54-34, Technique No 21 from Virginia, 24-17 years old Virginia and 23 in Boston College, North Carolina 45-24. # 12 Utah this week was in vain.

Only the remaining 8 unbeaten teams include Texas, Alabama, Penn State, Texas Tech, Utah, Boise State, Ball State and Tulsa.

When the 25th AP of the 10th week was out, four missing teams were not. 17 Pittsburgh, Kansas 19, Kansas Technics and No. 23 Boston College. Everyone was lost this week and later they went.

In the new list this year, Maryland was at No. 25, and before returning to season 25, they were No. 21 North Carolina, No. 22 Michigan State and 23 Oregon.

The 10th week of college football will be a pretty timid schedule with two exceptions. One undefeated team will lose for the first time when No. 1 Texas (8-0) invaded No. 6 Texas Tech (8-0): Red Raiders understands that number 1 must win number 1. Texas received 100 percent of the first AP vote.

Another major test will be No. 5 in Florida (6-1), Georgia 8 (7-1). Most of the rest of the teams play a foam group.

Copyright © 2008 Ed Bagley

The Heaveber Stone is Oklahoma Rune Mystery


The purpose of my Rune Mysteries series is twice. One is sharing the truth with my North European Credit, which our ancestors visited in the Americas hundreds of years before the birth of Columbus.

Secondly, led by Smithsonian, it is a lie that these truths hide you. It is not so much evil conspiracy as foolish conspiracy. If the truth came out, all the doctors of archeology will be able to quit. And all books in history should be attributed. I think it's easier to lie than to re-register.

The people always have generations of truth from the past. Oldcomers of Oklahoma say that there were dozens of large Rune stones at once. So far only five have been found. Let me talk about this. You can browse the web and read more on your own website. I only try to point out the right direction.


Pagan Rune Stone was discovered on the Mount of Fort Lauderdale in eastern Oklahoma. He first thought he was "Indian rock." It's 12 feet high, 10 feet wide and 16 inches thick. Carl F. Kammer finds that when the stones were found, in 1913. The symbols of the eighteenth rock were pulled into a stone. When he told them, the others said, "Yes, we saw it is Indian stones." The Smithsonian Institute's Archeology Department told the committee that they were really Rooney. But these were placed by modern Scandinavians.

However, the Ruins, which have been used, have come from a century that precedes Rwi's more than 1,000 years.

The Poteau Rune Stone

In 1967, several schoolchildren discovered a rock. It was a 15-inch stone on which a few rock letters were placed. It was discovered by Terry Hill, on the outskirts of Potia, at the foot of Mount Karavala.

This stone was just 10 miles from Heavenly Rooney Stone.

The Shawnee Rune Stone

This stone was found in the center of Oklahoma City, within the boundaries of the city of Shaun. This 14-inch stone found Jim Essace in 1969. It is a reddish color and weighs 14 pounds. There are five runes given to it. It was placed on Earth as a landmark or gravestone. The prominent Norse secret specialist notes that it is 1024 AD. Smithson does not say anything about these discoveries. It has quite destroyed the Egyptian mummies, thousands of miles away from their own yard yard.

I just give a little silhouette. There are very good information on these three Vodka stones. There is no point in obtaining this article, easily accessible. Check these Rune stones images and see if they can decode their messages.

Short Presentation Shops & # 39; Paradise – intersection centers in Oklahoma City

The Crossroads Mall is the main milestone in the OKC southern borders in Oklahoma City. Approximately one million square kilometers of territory extends to more than fifty stores, different food joints, theaters, children's playgrounds and other facilities. All this makes Crossroads Mall, OKC buyer and paradise.

Various stores include Elegant Jewelers, Champs Sports, Bath and Body Works, Victoria's Secret, Foot-Action USA and OKC Style. It should be noted, however, that some of the leading anchor stores, such as JC Penny, Dillard & Macy, recently closed their work in Mall to allow Victoria & Secret & Bath and Body Works as the only factory anchor stores.

Even with the closure of some major anchor stores, Mall has been able to capture a number of shopolic-like repairs that have become an absolute necessity for Mall's face. This led to the increase of the playing field and the carousel. Guests and tourists can not miss the sight and sound of full-featured oil wells in the parking lot on the northern part of the Crossroads shopping center. This oil well continues to be greatly won in this shopping mall.

Marketing authorities have a major impact on Crossroads Mall amenities that relate to shopaholic and visitors. Crossroads Mall employees are always ready to help guests, with the exception of basic amenities, such as toilets, ATMs and phones. For example, if the guest wishes, a store employee would have read the living room.

Security personnel are even willing to provide you with your car. This is due to the services that Mall is still viewed as a customer's paradise.

How to Choose the Best Roof Type in Your Home?

At the choice of Oklahoma's roof, you need a company that knows the right roof type roof to install weather modes. The following are the most common types of roof materials and how they will keep the weather alive.

Residential Roof:

Asphalt Shingles

Asphalt shinglees are the most common roofing material since they are cheap and durable. Although they will stand against the northern parts of Oklahoma, asphalt beans that do not last long and harmful to the environment. You can invest a longer, more ecologically clean roof.

Fiberglass Shingles

Fiberglass shingles are similar to asphalt, except for the molding base used in asphalt shingles, replacing an inorganic glassplant, which makes them extremely durable and fire resistant and odor resistant. They are relatively inexpensive, but environmental impacts are high, so consider other items if you are looking for a green-friendly home.


From any roof of Oklahoma, you will be told that the tile is a roof material that will last for the smallest amount of storage. Both clay and concrete tiles are very durable, resistant to fire and odor and come in different colors. Tile roofs require little maintenance, but installation is difficult and should only be done by professionals. Tiles are very heavy, so they should be used in buildings or homes with good structural integrity. Tile roof is perfect for Oklahoma House if you can afford it.


Slate is another long-lasting, but its weight is a great drop. Additionally, jet can not withstand considerable weight, so heavy snow or ice can drown the roof. The landlords should be prepared for frequent maintenance and cleaning on slide roofs.

Wood shocks

Wood shocks are usually made of cedar and should be professionally placed and maintained well if you want them to continue. Shakes provides good insulation, but it is unacceptable to deteriorate and burn, and in general it is more expensive than other materials. Without crawling your plan, spending time to drive and maintain your roof, cedar sharks can not be the best choice for you.

Commercial Roof

Metal Roofs

As with metal roofs, like tile and tile, it is unexpected in its ability to stand for its elements. The metal roof also comes in several styles and colors, making it a versatile roof choice.

Housing roofs

Flat roofs are very common for storage types. The main drawback is the pool water tension, so when looking for a roof of the roof of Oklahoma, be sure to find the rain pattern and place your roof properly.

Roof terrace

The roofs are usually found in retail stores, banks, and other high-quality business structures. They are more attractive than on a flat or metal roof and, if properly installed, provide great protection against weather.

Explore various roof specialists, compare interest rates and products, and read past customer reviews. It's a little extra work but by choosing Oklahoma House, which you can trust, will require you time and money in the long run.